It is not as straight forward as it may sound. One cannot just directly dissolve CBD isolate or CBD distillate into the water. It is because the CBD molecule is lipophilic. That is, it loves oils but repels water. So, the only inconsiderable amount of CBD powder would dissolve in the water.
Nevertheless, researchers have long known various natural products in which oil molecules are suspended in water as if they are mixed with it. It is called emulsion. Some of the good examples could be milk and egg yolk. There are known ways of emulsification, and the same can be applied for producing water soluble CBD.
Water soluble CBD isolate or distillate still require the use of oil. It is because CBD simply does not mix well with water. So, how to make water soluble CBD? The starting point in creating water soluble CBD is mixing it with oil. Then comes the next step, which is breaking these CBD oil particles into tiny (nano) droplets so that they can remain suspended in the water. The resulting solution is a nano-emulsion.
There are many ways of breaking CBD oil into smaller particles. But the most common strategy used is deploying either high shear mixers or high energy ultrasonic sound waves. There are special machines in which this whole process is carried out. This equipment can break CBD oil into nanoparticles, small enough to get homogeneously suspended in the water, and remain stable for quite a long time.
Usually using ultrasonic waves are regarded better than high shear mixers (moving oil and water mixture at high velocity). However, most producers use a combination of these methods. One can start with high shear mixers and then use ultrasound homogenizers to produce even better and more stable nano-emulsion. These nanoparticles are so small that they can readily penetrate through various membranes, including intestinal membranes. These particles can also escape the first-pass metabolism in the liver in large amounts. All this means far greater bioavailability of CBD.